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AT 245 - Apparel and Textile Industry

This class guide supports student research for the Fall 2018 session of AT 245.

Why Cite Sources?

APA Citation: Online Guides

APA Citation ToolsK-State Libraries Instruction

When utilizing any of the K-State Libraries Databases subscriptions, look for a "Cite It" or "Cite This" option to help develop citations.  Any citation generated by a database also needs to be checked against a style guide — they are very rarely perfect

The Online Writing Lab ("OWL") at Purdue

  • APA Formatting and Style Guide page on the "OWL"
  • Scroll down to the bottom of the page to see the list of individual sections.
  • To see how to cite direct quotes or sources that you paraphrase, refer to the OWL sections that begin "In-Text Citation".
  • To see samples of how to cite your sources at the end of your paper, in the Reference List or Bibliography, refer to the OWL sections that begin "Reference List".

Record as You Research

This is a general list of the detailed information necessary to capture as you find useful content from both printed materials and electronic materials.

circles and squares of slightly different sizes and colors

Print Materials

Text and/or images from printed books, magazines, and journals have similar requirements for citation. Note the similarities and differences in the lists below.


  • Author(s)
  • Dates
  • Chapter Title & Author(s)
  • Book Title
  • Publisher and City
  • Page Numbers


  • Author(s)
  • Dates
  • Article Title
  • Journal Title
  • Volume & Issue
  • Page Numbers


Dates — when the work was published or created. In your research notes, write the most specific format available. This may be year (1998), month+year (09/1998), or individual day (09/01/1998). What if there is no date? Use "n.d.".

Chapter Titles & Authors — in edited works, the chapters are written by different people. Citations need the names of book editors and chapter authors.

Page Number — the specific page of the image or the text.

partial view of image citation for artwork


All the above information is required from the printed item, plus

  • Creator(s)
  • Date Created
  • Medium
  • Title of Work
  • Page Number


Medium — describe the item such as photograph, digital photograph, drawing, painting, etc.

computer screensElectronic materials

If you find an electronic version of a book, article, or image you will need all of the information required for print materials, plus


  • URL
  • DOI


  • URL


URL – the link to the document in a database or the link to the page the image was found on. For images, be careful with the link. A Google search result is not stable. Click through to the page that the image "lives" on so that you have the original context.

DOI — a digital object identifier. The DOI is an exclusive alphanumeric string and is used to create a permanent link to a particular document. We have a guide on finding permalinks. Though not always available, it is something to look for.