K-State Libraries Guide: Citations and Bibliographies — APA Resources
Purdue's OWL is a popular online resource providing a wide variety of quick links to the manual of the American Psychological Association. The following links include some of the top questions that we receive regarding citation advice. The OWL and the print copy of the APA manual include much more detailed information.
As you find research resources related to your topic, it will be important to capture the detailed information needed to make citations for the sources you use. This is a list of the standard information needed to document both print format and electronic materials.
Text and/or images from printed books, magazines, and journals have similar requirements for citation. Note the similarities and differences in the lists below.
Dates — when the work was published or created. In your research notes, write the most specific format available. This may be year (1998), month+year (09/1998), or individual day (09/01/1998). What if there is no date? Use "n.d.".
Chapter Titles & Authors — in edited works, the chapters are written by different people. Citations need the names of book editors and chapter authors.
Page Number — the specific page of the image or the text.
All the above information is required from the printed item, plus
Medium — describe the item such as photograph, digital photograph, drawing, painting, etc.
If you find an electronic version of a book, article, or image you will need all of the information required for print materials, plus
URL – the link to the document in a database or the link to the page the image was found on. For images, be careful with the link. A Google search result is not stable. Click through to the page that the image "lives" on so that you have the original context.
DOI — a digital object identifier. The DOI is an exclusive alphanumeric string and is used to create a permanent link to a particular document. We have a guide on finding permalinks. Though not always available, it is something to look for.