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Landscape Architecture

A subject guide to support research in the field of Landscape Architecture.

LAR Citation Guide (Chicago Style)

This guide is intended to help establish consistency across citations for LAR courses and provide examples of common citations.  The following citation guidance was written using the Chicago Manual of Style, Author-Date References. This information is neither comprehensive nor exhaustive and should be considered a starting point.

If you do not see an example of the type of source you are attempting to cite, consult the K-State Libraries subscription to the full text of the Chicago Manual of Style (when accessing from off campus, enter your eID & password when prompted).

Any questions? Please ask.

The Online Writing Lab from Purdue University's English Department has an excellent resource on the Chicago Manual of Style that includes additional examples. 

Books

Book


De Landa, Manuel. 1997. A thousand years of nonlinear history. New York: Zone Books.

(De Landa 1997, 39)

Mauck, Laura M. 2001. Images of America: Five Points Neighborhood of Denver. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing.

(Mauck 2001, 111)


Book chapter in edited book

Beauregard, Robert A. 2005. “From Place to Site: Negotiating Narrative Complexity.” In Site Matters: Design Concepts, Histories, and Strategies. ed. Carol Burns and Andrea Kahn. New York: Routledge.

(Beauregard 2005, 44)

 

Image from a book: example citations

"Untitled Photograph of a building at 27th and Arapahoe." 1939. Photographer unknown. Reproduced from Laura M. Mauck. 2001. In Images of America: Five Points Neighborhood of Denver. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 111.

"Untitled Photograph of the Rossonian, formerly the Baxter Hotel on Welton Street, Denver Co." n.d. Photographer unknown. Reproduced from Laura M. Mauck. 2001. In Images of America: Five Points Neighborhood of Denver. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 76.

"Untitled Photograph of a featherhead gown." n.d. Design by Frank Sorbier. Reproduced from Elaine Stone. 2007. In Fashion: Fun! Fame! Fortune! New York, NY: Fairfield Publications, Inc., 7.
 

Articles (magazines & journals)

Article, printed version


Mentens, Jeroen, Dirk Raes and Martin Hermy. 2006. "Green roofs as a tool for solving the rainwater runoff problem in the urbanized 21st century?" Landscape and Urban Planning 77(3): 217-226.

(Mentens, Raes and Hermy 2006, 220)


Article, retrieved from a database

Stryker, Kimberlee S. 2008. "Pietro Porcinai and the modern Italian garden." Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 28(2): 252-269. Accessed July 27, 2010. Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, www.csa.com.

(Stryker 2008, 261)


Article, retrieved from a database w/ DOI

Cidell, Julie and Alexander Beata. 2009. "Spatial variation among green building certification categories: Does place matter?" Landscape and Urban Planning 91(3): 142-151. Accessed August 31, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.12.001,.

(Cidell and Beata 2009, 143)



Article, retrieved from an online newspaper

Siebenmark, Jerry. 2013. "Landscape architecture students to help with Wichita’s downtown development." The Wichita Eagle, January 29. http://www.kansas.com/2013/01/29/2655341/landscape-architecture-students.html#storylink=cpy.

(Siebenmark 2013)

Tanner, Beccy. 2013. "Brookville Hotel removed from Historic Register." The Wichita Eagle, January 30. http://www.kansas.com/2013/01/30/2655337/brookville-hotel-removed-from.html#storylink=cpy

(Tanner 2013)

Wilson, Bill. 2013. "Developer seals deal to buy Union Station in downtown Wichita." The Wichita Eagle, February 2. http://www.kansas.com/2013/02/01/2659282/developer-seals-deal-to-buy-union.html#storylink=cpy

(Wilson 2013) 


Image from a printed article


Basic Citation format:
"Title of the image." Date the work was created. Medium by Artist. Reproduced from Article Author. Publication date. "Article title." Journal Title: Volume number, Issue number.

Citation Example:
"Green Landscape with Nine Circles." 2008. Mixed media on linen by Federico Herrero. Reproduced from Gabriel Perez-Barreiro. Summer 2010. "Seeing Stars: The director of Coleccion Patricia Phelps de Cisneros introduces Latin America's most promising talents." Modern Painters: 40.
 

Web sources

Web source


Basic Citation Format: Website author. Webpage publication date. "Title of the web page." Accessed date. http://www.etc.

Note:

  • The website author may be a person or a corporate author.
  • Include the date that the site was last modified if available -- ideally the site would also have a date of publication.


Citation Examples:

Reference list:

Denver Public Library. 2011. "Denver - Creating Communities." Accessed February 4, 2011, http://creatingcommunities.denverlibrary.org/content/denver.

In text: (Denver Public Library 2011)

Reference list:

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. National Park Service. 2010. "U.S. National Park Service Mission." Accessed November 3, 2011,  http://www.nps.gov/aboutus/mission.htm.

In text: (U.S. Department of the Interior 2010)


Image from a website

Basic Citation format:
"Title of the image." Date the work was created. Medium by Artist. Courtesy of the website author. Accessed date. Reproduced from "The title of the specific web page that links to that image," http://www.etc.

Note:

  • Some websites include advice for citing the content found on that site.
  • When using an Internet search such as Google Images to find images, make sure you click through to the website that the image "lives" on, and cite that page.


Select Citation Examples:

Library of Congress:

“Portrait of Pierre Blamain and Ruth Ford making a dress." n.d. Photograph by Carl Van Vechten. Courtesy of Library of Congress. Accessed February 9, 2008. Reproduced from "Prints & Photographs Online Catalog," Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004662555.

Digitized Kansas Maps (using their format for preferred citations; see also their copyright page):

"Map of Wichita Kansas." 1886. Map by N.F. Niederlander and Jas. L. Mead. Published by L.H. Everts & Co. Courtesy of Wichita State University.  Call Number: 1885-0008. Accessed January 30, 2013.  Reproduced from "A Collection of Digitized Kansas Maps," Special Collections and University Archives, Wichita State University Libraries: http://specialcollections.wichita.edu/collections/maps/detailsframes.asp?userinput=wichita&searchdes=&offset=10&submitform=Submit&var=1885-0008

Wichita Photo Archives (using their format for preferred citations; see also their copyright page):

"United States Surveyors Surveying Sedgwick County." 1867. Photograph by Unknown photographer.  Courtesy of Wichita State University Libraries.  Accessed January 30, 2013.  Reproduced from the Ignace Mead Jones Collection of James R. Mead Papers, Wichita State University Libraries' Department of Special Collections: http://www.wichitaphotos.org/searchresults.asp?yr=1860s

Flickr

Image from Flickr


Basic Citation Format: “Title of the image.” Date the work was created. Photograph by Flickr user X (full name). Accessed date. Reproduced from Flickr, http://www.flicker.com/etc.

Note:

  • Flickr includes content licensed with Creative Commons: http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/
  • The title of the image is located below the left corner of the image.
  • The date taken is located to the right of the image, below the by line.
  • Flickr users often go by a username and often provide their real name as well. If available, provide the real name in parentheses following the username.
  • The URL is the URL for the specific image you used. The reader should be able to click on it or type it in and see the picture you used.
  • The accessed date is the date that you downloaded the image.

"Autobuses Americanos." 2010. Photograph by Flickr user Jeffrey Beall. Accessed February 4, 2011. Reproduced from Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/denverjeffrey/4849715426/. Made available under a Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Creative Commons license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/.

"Corner Bar (21st and Champa, Denver, CO)." 2007. Photograph by Flickr user writRHET. Accessed February 4, 2011. Reproduced from Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/writrhet/4686874893/in/set-72157625318851165/. Made available under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Creative Commons license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/.

"Rescue Mission (Sign atop the Denver Rescue Mission, a homeless shelter at the corner of Lawrence Street and Park Avenue West, Denver, CO)." 2007. Photograph by Flickr user writRHET. Accessed February 4, 2011. Reproduced from Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/writrhet/4852330282/.  Made available under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Creative Commons license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/.

“benches.” March 6, 2010. Digital photograph by gr1fter (Flickr username). Accessed February 13, 2015. Reproduced from Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/gr1fter/4411872495. Made available under a Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic Creative Commons license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/.

"Farmer's Market, Manhattan, Kansas." August 8, 2009. Digital photograph by Wesley Fryer. Accessed February 13, 2015. Reproduced from Flickr, https://www.flickr.com/photos/wfryer/3816540638/in/set-72157621900155333. Made available under a Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Creative Commons license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/.

Original Drawings, Photos & Maps

Original Drawings & Photos


Drawings created without external sources (sketches, experiential diagrams): Last name, First name. Year. Title of drawing. Medium.

Example:  Hunt, Jon. 2011. Windswept Broadway. Graphite on sketch paper.

Photographs: Last name, First name. year. Title of photograph. Media.

Example:  Urton, Ellen. 2011. The Bar Bar (Arapahoe Square, Denver, CO). Digital photograph.


Original maps created using map sources

Format:
Last name, First name. Year. Name of drawing. Source data: Author name. Map year. Map name. Location. [map]. Scale. Place: Publisher.

Example:
Belanger, Blake. 2011. Building coverage diminished most significantly between 1940 and 1970. Source data: Sanborn Map Company. 1922. Denver Colorado, Sheet 1. Denver, Colorado. [map]. 50 ft. to an inch. New York: Sanborn Map Company. From the University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries Digital Asset Library, Building Colorado Story by Story: The Sanborn Fire Insurance Map Collection.


Original maps created using GIS data (Single layer)

Format:
Last name, First name. Year. Name of map. Source data: Source agency of map data. “Layer used.” URL of source GIS data. Access date.

Example:
Belanger, Blake. 2011. Block anomalies occur along Broadway Avenue. Source data: City and County of Denver GIS. “Pavement edge.” http://www.denvergov.org/Default.aspx?alias=www.denvergov.org/GIS. Accessed 5 January 2011.

Note:

  • You are the author of your map
  • The map title should be descriptive of the point you are trying to illustrate through your combination of data.
  • Use the URL that the reader can use to access the data you used in your map
  • Accessed date = the day you downloaded the data used to create the map.



Original maps created using GIS data (Multiple layers)

Format:
Last name, First name. Year. Name of drawing. Source data: Source data. “Layer name,” “layer name,” “layer name.” URL referenced. Access date.

Example:
Belanger, Blake. 2011. Building grain correlates with land use. Source data: City and County of Denver GIS. “Building outlines,” “Land use.” http://www.denvergov.org/Default.aspx?alias=www.denvergov.org/GIS. Accessed 5 January 2011.

Note:

  • You are the author of your map
  • The map title should be descriptive of the point you are trying to illustrate through your combination of data.
  • Use the URL that the reader can use to access the data you used in your map
  • Accessed date = the day you downloaded the data used to create the map.



Original maps created using Google Earth data

Format:
Last name, First name. Year. Name of map. Source map: Name of map source. Place name. Coordinates of map. URL of source GIS data. Access date.

Example:
Belanger, Blake. 2011. Parking lots are predominantly gravel. Source map: Google Earth. Denver, Colorado. 39d45’05.29”N 104d59’14.01”W. Accessed 6 January 2011.

Note:

  • You are the author of your map
  • Google Earth is an exception as it has no URL
  • Accessed date = the day you downloaded the dated used to create the map.

ArcGIS examples

ArcGIS examples

(***Note: "Accessed" date refers to the date that you accessed the document.***)

Herries, Jim, Esri, & NAVTEQ. 2013 (last modified October 29, 2013).  “Supermarket Access Map,” Viewed in: “ArcGIS.com Map Viewer,” Location: "Saint Joseph, Missouri, United States." Accessed February 5, 2014, http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=153c17de00914039bb28f6f6efe6d322.

Map Service [AtlasPublisher], Esri, Inc., & U.S. Census Bureau. 2011 (last modified July 13, 2012). "USA Census Vacant Housing," Viewed in: "ArcGIS for Desktop," Location: "Saint Joseph, Missouri, United States." Accessed February 3, 2014, http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=302d4e6025ef41fa8d3525b7fc31963a.

Map Service [Esri, Inc.]. 2013 (last modified January 10, 2014). "USA Median Age (Mature Support)," Viewed in: "ArcGIS for Desktop," Location: "Saint Joseph, Missouri, United States." Accessed February 3, 2014, http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=fce0ca8972ae4268bc4a69443b8d1ef.

Map Service [Esri, Inc.]. 2013 (last modified January 10, 2014). "USA Population Density (Mature Support)," Viewed in: "ArcGIS for Desktop," Location: "Saint Joseph, Missouri, United States." Accessed February 3, 2014, http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=302d4e6025ef41fa8d3525b7fc31963a.

Map Service [Esri, Inc.]. 2014 (last modified January 10, 2014). "USA Retail Spending Potential (Mature Support)," Viewed in: "ArcGIS for Desktop," Location: "Saint Joseph, Missouri, United States." Accessed February 3, 2014, http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=fbbef255c2e84fe296c39f4a11609dff.

Map Service [Esri, Inc.]. 2014 (last modified January 31, 2014). "World Imagery," Viewed in: "ArcGIS for Desktop," Location: "Saint Joseph, Missouri, United
States." Accessed January 26, 2014, http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=10df2279f9684e4a9f6a7f08febac2a9.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps

Black and White Key: http://sanborn.umi.com/HelpFiles/bwkey.pdf (Black and White versions of the Sanborn maps are available via K-State Libraries )

Color versions: Available from the University of Kansas’ Digital Collections http://cds.lib.ku.edu/sanborn-maps/ 

 

Sample citations for Sanborn Maps 

From the KU collection for the whole set from a city

Sanborn Map & Publishing Co. Wichita, Kansas. 1884. 9 sheets. Scale: 50 feet to an inch. “Kansas Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps”. The University of Kansas Luna Insight Image Collections. http://luna.ku.edu:8180/luna/servlet/detail/kuluna01kui~12~12~2283002 ~256395:Wichita,-Kansas---1884 (February 4, 2013).

 

For a single sheet in the series:

Sanborn Map & Publishing Co. [Sheet 1].  Scale: 50 feet to an inch. Wichita, Kansas. 1884. “Kansas Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps”. The University of Kansas Luna Insight Image Collections. http://luna.ku.edu:8180/luna/servlet/detail/kuluna01kui~12~12~ 2283002~256395:Wichita,-Kansas---1884 (February 4, 2013).

 

Sample Citation from K-State:

Sanborn Map & Publishing Co. Wichita, Kansas. 1884. 9 sheets. Scale: 50 feet to an inch. “Digital Sanborn Maps 1867-1970 – Kansas” http://sanborn.umi.com/ks/3114/dateid-000001.htm?CCSI=4415n  (February 4, 2013).