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Communication Sciences and Disorders

Welcome! This guide is designed to help you learn how to use K-State Libraries' many resources to complete your CSD assignments.

Library Research Guide

How Will This Help Me?

Use APA citation style to:

  • Format in-text citations
    • to credit other authors' ideas and wording
    • lend credibility to your project
    • help readers find the original source
  • Format the references page
    • to indicate to your instructor all sources used in your project
    • help readers find the original source
  • Fulfill the honor pledge

Using Sources Effectively and Correctly

You can use sources 3 ways in research projects. Be sure to give credit, by using in-text citations, to the source for all of these options. 

             Ways to use sources

 In-text citations can be in 2 forms:

  • Within parentheses after the quotation or paraphrase. For example: Water was found to be the option for rehydration (Smith,1998).
  • Within the sentence structure. For example: According to a recent study by Smith, Jones, and Wesson (2015) the triathlete is three times as likely to suffer from this injury.

Some don'ts:

  • Don't use sentences/phrases word-for-word without quotation marks; your instructors know your writing style and can tell if it's not your words.
  • Don't just change words to synonyms or change the order of the words; it's still not your idea/concept. Use in-text citations for these.


Use in-text citations when borrowing ideas and wording from another source. The basic components are the author(s), the date, and page number(s) if a direct quote.

(Jones, 2013)   OR   (Jones, 2013, p. 263)   OR (Jones, 2013, pp. 261-262)

If your source, most often a web page, doesn't have a page number use paragraph numbers:

(Jones, 2013, Making Decisions section, para. 7) 

Make note of the number of authors of the article.  There are different rules if there are more than 2 authors. Refer to Author/Authors page from the OWL at Purdue University for more information.


You should include every source that you cite in your project on the references page. Here are the basic formats:

Book:  Author, A.A. (year). Title of the book. Location: Publisher.

Journal Article

Author, A.A., Author, B.B., Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), pages. https.//doi/xx.xxxxxxxxxxxx

Please note the above citation should have the 2nd line indented in the hanging indent format.

Again watch the number of authors, there are different rules for more than 20 authors.  Refer to Author/Authors page from the OWL at Purdue University for more information.

As with text-based information, always cite the images that you use.

You must cite images even if it comes from the public domain, is licensed by Creative Commons, or falls under fair use.  If you create the image, you must still cite it.  Further help in determining the fair use of images is available.

Here are some locations that may have images for you to use.

Google Images: after running a search, click on the option for Search tools and from the menu that appears, click on Usage rights.  From there you will be able to filter your search results by permitted use.

image of Google Image


Wikimedia Commons has free usable images. These still need to be cited and follow the terms the author indicates. 

The in-text citation should be under the image.  The citation on the References page should follow the same format as for text resources. Remember to use a hanging indent for the 2nd and subsequent lines, the formatting on this page does not clearly show this feature.

In-text example:

Image of head movement

Figure 1. Forces on the brain during a concussion.


References page example:

Lynch, P. J. & Jaffe, C. C. (2006). Concussion mechanics [Image].  Retrieved August 25, 2016 from

General format for the References page:

Lastname (of artist), First Initial. Second Initial. (Year or n.d.for no date). Title of the image in italics [Format of item:image,table,photograph,etc.]Retrieved date from (address of web site)

More image citation information is available on the Visual Literacy tab for ENGL 417 (Written Communication for the Workplace).