ID 651 - Designing Supportive Environments

This class guide supports student research for the Fall 2021 session of ID 651.

Library Research Guide

Why Cite Sources?

This video begins with an explanation of how researchers contribute to a collection of scholarly work and why it is important to cite sources. Additional discussion topics include using citation to avoid plagiarism, types of sources to cite, the basic elements of citation, citation styles, and sources of additional information on how to create citations.

APA Citation: Online Guides

K-State Libraries Guide: Citations and Bibliographies — APA Resources

  • The Citations and Bibliographies guide from K-State Libraries includes a section on the RefWorks citation management system.
  • When utilizing any of the K-State Libraries databases, look for a "Cite It" or "Cite This" option to help develop citations.  Any citation generated by a database also needs to be checked against a style guide because they are very rarely perfect. 

The Online Writing Lab ("OWL") at Purdue

Purdue's OWL is a popular online resource providing a wide variety of quick links to the manual of the American Psychological Association. The following links include the answers to some of the top questions that Ellen receives regarding citation advice. The OWL and the print copy of the APA manual include much more detailed information.  

Record as You Research

As you find research resources related to your topic, it will be important to capture the detailed information needed to make citations for the sources you use. This is a list of the standard information needed to document both print format and electronic materials. 


circles and squares of slightly different sizes and colors

Print Materials

Text and/or images from printed books, magazines, and journals have similar requirements for citation. Note the similarities and differences in the lists below.


  • Author(s)
  • Dates
  • Chapter Title & Author(s)
  • Book Title
  • Publisher and City
  • Page Numbers


  • Author(s)
  • Dates
  • Article Title
  • Journal Title
  • Volume & Issue
  • Page Numbers


Dates — when the work was published or created. In your research notes, write the most specific format available. This may be year (1998), month+year (09/1998), or individual day (09/01/1998). What if there is no date? Use "n.d.".

Chapter Titles & Authors — in edited works, the chapters are written by different people. Citations need the names of book editors and chapter authors.

Page Number — the specific page of the image or the text.

partial view of image citation for artwork


All the above information is required from the printed item, plus

  • Creator(s)
  • Date Created
  • Medium
  • Title of Work
  • Page Number


Medium — describe the item such as photograph, digital photograph, drawing, painting, etc.

computer screensElectronic materials

If you find an electronic version of a book, article, or image you will need all of the information required for print materials, plus


  • URL
  • DOI


  • URL


URL – the link to the document in a database or the link to the page the image was found on. For images, be careful with the link. A Google search result is not stable. Click through to the page that the image "lives" on so that you have the original context.

DOI — a digital object identifier. The DOI is an exclusive alphanumeric string and is used to create a permanent link to a particular document. We have a guide on finding permalinks. Though not always available, it is something to look for.